Thursday, August 27, 2020

Short Quotes About Life

Short Quotes About Life Given an opportunity, a great many people will wax expressive on the significance of life. A conversation regarding this matter can proceed for quite a long time. So called rationalists can't control themselves from looking at life finally from each conceivable point: birth, youth, growing up, affection, family, vocation, retirement, mature age, lastly, death.We can just observe the tip of the ceaseless ice sheet called life. Life has significantly more profundity and measurement than one can comprehend. However, notwithstanding its boundless measurements, life can be characterized in only a couple of words. As the incomparable Mahatma Gandhi set it forth plainly, Where there is love, there is life. Finding the Love in Life An actual existence deprived of affection is a poor thing without a doubt. Sentimental people guarantee that the nonappearance of a noteworthy other is the cruelest blow that life can give you. They state that you have not lived until you have adored. Nonetheless, ​romantic love is just piece of the embroidered artwork of connections that improves life. There is love for guardians, kin and companions; love for pets; love for experience; love for home; love for motion pictures, books, travel, craftsmanship, thus substantially more. German essayist and scholar Johann Wolfgang von Goethe stated, We are molded and formed by what we love.Love gives us motivation to live. It carries happiness to our day by day life. Love rules in our most joyful minutes, working off camera to make them more joyful. Love forever expands the delight of being alive, even despite unforgiving conditions. Love can help conquer your most profound sadness and your darkest fears.We are prompted not to harp o n our distress, yet to get back on track and walk forward. In any case, it assists with getting trouble. We follow the best catastrophes on the cinema. We read about genuine and anecdotal saints. We sob with them yet return home cleansed of our distress, and talented with another point of view on life. On the off chance that you are searching for snappy help, these pitiful statements give pieces of insight. Gain From Lifes Experiences Our encounters †regardless of whether glad or miserable, tranquil or nerve-wracking, paramount or forgettable †make us what our identity is. French stone worker Auguste Rodin had stated, Nothing is an exercise in futility on the off chance that you utilize the experience admirably. He couldnt have put it better. This assortment of short statements passes on two significant messages: one, that life is an assortment of heap encounters; and two, that the best guidance is brief. Dont Dwell on the Past A few people are continually educating the world regarding their disturbed past. They harp on past occasions yet neglect to gain from their encounters. They hop into the equivalent troublesome circumstances over and over, and afterward cry, Woe is me! Take the instance of the sequential con artist. Or on the other hand the bum who will not leave the love seat. Or then again the never entirely recuperating speculator. They guarantee that conditions are against them, overlooking that life is what we think about it. Effective individuals are the individuals who gain from their encounters. Here and there, these exercises must be learned all things considered. A short astute statement by Ralph Waldo Emerson says all that needs to be said, The years show a lot of which the days never knew. Growing up Is Not a Cakewalk Youngsters and adolescents are caught up with attempting to act like adults, while grown-ups go through their days thinking back about the joyful long stretches of adolescence. Aristotle was correct when he stated, The divine beings also are attached to a joke. This short statement is entertaining yet it gets the point over. It offers a silly clarification for why we continue pining for what we don't have, continually looking for the tricky greener grass.Our scan for what could be proceeds into mature age, when we insightfully recall the years passed by. The hopeful people appreciate each second, investing energy with their kids and grandkids, putting their extra an ideal opportunity to the most ideal use. The doubters and the sad neglect to see the delights of life as they stand by fretfully for death to show its face. In the event that you can't comprehend this fixation on death, these short passing statements will assist you with getting a handle on an alternate perspective. For e xample, you may believe passing to be a horrible thing however writer Walt Whitman would differ with you. He once composed, Nothing can happen more excellent than death. Cleverness Makes Life Bearable A couple of days back, I ran over a sharp citation by Irish dramatist George Bernard Shaw. He stated, Life doesn't stop to be entertaining when individuals bite the dust anything else than it stops to be not kidding when individuals live. Shaw was known for his clever manner of expression, and his capacity to see the comic side of life. In this statement, he gets the job done perfectly, advising us that cleverness and earnestness exist independent of desperate. That is the reason American humorist Philander Johnsons popular words, Cheer up, the most exceedingly terrible is yet to come, never neglects to animate giggling. Looking at the situation objectively, Johnsons forecast is awful. However, humor makes that certainty simpler to bear.Short amusing expressions raise spirits even in the midst of grave conditions. You can discover captivating assessments on life, demise, and everything in the middle of in these assortments of short clever statements. Keep in mind, chuckling is the be st medication. Whenever you discover life turning into excessively inauspicious, give yourself the endowment of chuckling. Peruse some entertaining short statements when you feel teary. Slacken up a little when things don't go your direction. Remember that ever-appropriate line by American creator Elbert Hubbard, Dont pay attention to life as well. Youll never receive in return alive. Live it while you despite everything can! Charlie BrownIn the book of life, the appropriate responses arent in the back.Samuel JohnsonSome want is important to keep life in motion.John Walters Life is short, so appreciate it to the fullest.David SeltzerFor a few minutes in life there are no words.Edward FitzgeraldI am totally supportive of the short and cheerful life.Anthony HopkinsI love life since what more is there.D. H. LawrenceLife is our own to be spent, not to be saved.Woody AllenLife is isolated into the shocking and the miserable.Johann Wolfgang von GoetheA pointless life is an early death.Donald TrumpEverything in life is luck.Bertolt Brecht Life is short as is money.Robert ByrneThe motivation behind life is an existence of purpose.James DeanDream as though youll live perpetually, live as though amazing ProverbBe not terrified of going gradually; be apprehensive just of standing still.Albert CamusLife is the aggregate of all your choices.Moroccan ProverbHe who has nothing incredible has nothing to live for.Emily Di ckinsonTo live is so alarming it allows for anything else.Will SmithLife is lived on the edge.John LennonLife is what befalls you while youre caught up with making other plans.Walter AnnenbergAccomplish something each day of your life.Alfred HitchcockDrama is existence with the dull bits cut out.Simone WeilEvery impeccable life is an anecdote created by God.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

History of East Saint Louis Essay Example for Free

History of East Saint Louis Essay East Saint Louis, Illinois is a little city it has an aggregate of 89 avenues starting today. Around in the 1860’s the city used to be called Illinois town. It was the fourth biggest city in the territory of Illinois. Individuals knew one spot they could find a new line of work was in this city. The name East Saint Louis came about due to the horrible notoriety it had when it was known as Illinois town so they chose to rename it wanting to defeat all the difficulties they were confronting. Employments began to disappear, riots broke out and blacks moving there was the reason for this. The greater part of the blacks that lived there originated from down South where day to day environments couldn’t be a lot of most noticeably terrible. On the off chance that they got an opportunity to move their kids they did. They didn’t need their kids to encounter the life of picking cotton as they had. The whites there were vexed and weren’t going to let the blacks take their occupations. As time developed and more blacks begin to come, the more occupations began to leave so as the employments began to leave the Population began to decay importance charges were higher and slices must be made. One financial specialist had as a main priority in the event that he got some empty parts that he could bring in a minimal expenditure as an afterthought, in light of the fact that the national government would give assets to â€Å"turnkey housing† to be dispersed all through the city, so the vacant property will be his snappy get rich plan. At the point when the lodging Authority started assembling Low-pay lodging, genuine bequests operators and designers raked in some serious cash building and selling houses in West Belleville. The whites began to escape once they began to work in their neighborhoods. As time as began to pass things began to get most exceedingly awful, Violence were individuals were harmed, Homes being broken into, individuals being looted, and killed. The populace in the 1960 was around 81,728, starting at 2011 the populace is 27,000, with an expected 14,000 inhabitant living out in the open lodging that leaves the taxation rate on the 13,000. 40% of the inhabitants draw open guide. The blacks who are capable are escaping endlessly from the city also. This makes the populace keep on dropping. In 1972, James Williams was the town dark first Mayor he crushed Charles Merritts despite the fact that Merritts had the help of the white Democrats. From that point Merritts was sentence to government jail for accepting payoffs as leader of School District 189 Board of Education and furthermore for putting an agreement out to slaughter Clyde C. Jordan, an incredible pioneer for the town who was an individual educational committee part and distributer of the Crusader dark week after week paper. In the current year we can see that nothing has changed. All the defilement of this town has been going on since the get-go. Nothing truly has transform, we may see another promising structure at this very moment however an inappropriate people despite everything holds the way in to the area of this all. We as residents of East St. Louis, IL ideally one day get the boldness to go to bat for what’s right and not stress over the result we may persevere. Change is acceptable and the city of East Saint Louis needs an enormous change and we as the individuals can and will get that going.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Avoiding Payday Loans How to Deal With a Bounced Paycheck

Avoiding Payday Loans How to Deal With a Bounced Paycheck Avoiding Payday Loans: How to Deal With a Bounced Paycheck Avoiding Payday Loans: How to Deal With a Bounced PaycheckCan a paycheck bounce? Unfortunately, yep. It does happen.If your paycheck bounces or your employer is late with a payment, it can mean financial disaster. Here are the steps you can take to fix the situation, as well as savings strategies to make sure you have the funds to make it through.If you’re one of the millions living paycheck-to-paycheck, then what would you do if your next paycheck happened to, well, just not show up. Or worse, it does show up, but when you go to cash it, you get the four worst words in the English language: “Transaction Failed, Insufficient Funds.”What are you going to do now? Do you have enough money in your savings account to deal with a delayed paycheck?If you don’t know the answers to these questions, don’t worry. There’s no need for you to run over to your local payday lender and take out a short-term, high-interest loan that’ll put you in an even deeper financial hole.Instead, ju st keep reading.1. Talk to your employerNothing shakes your faith in the American enterprise system like a bounced paycheck,” says Howard Dvorkin (@HowardDvorkin), CPA and Chairman of (@debtcom).“It happens most often in small businesses, and many times, it’s not only unintentional, the employer is rightfully embarrassed as hell.”Dvorkin says that your first step should be to “call your employer and politely inquire. You just might get a horrified apology because someone forgot to do something important.”According to Roslyn Lash (@RosLash), an Accredited Financial Counselor and the founder of Youth Smart Financial Education Services, you should want to “make sure that the money wasnt incorrectly transferred or some type of computer glitch.”“Therefore,” she says, “you need to call your employer and explain the situation and inquire about a reissue date.”2. Start a Paper TrailIf your bounced paycheck does turn out to be a simple error, then you’ll pr obably be fine. But if it’s something elseâ€"if your employer is maybe up to somethingâ€"then you’re going to need documentation. You’ll need to not only document your lack of a paycheck, but your efforts to resolve the issue.“If you contact your employer and you get an attitude, start a paper trail,” says Dvorkin. “Get a copy of the returned check, and keep copies showing if you had to pay overdraft fees.”According to Lash, when people with a bounced paycheck contact their employer, they should “be sure to document the name, location of the representative that they speak with. This will be the beginning of the paper trail,” she says. “From this point forward, every conversation and everything and I mean everything should be documented.”3. Call Your BankMost people plan their bill payments around their paycheck. But when a paycheck bounces, that plan has got to change.Contact your bank to have all drafted automatic payments from your account canceled.” says L ash.   “Explain the situation to the bank representative and request proof that your paycheck was not deposited into your account.”“Any documentation that they can provide proofing that the employer had insufficient funds or that the check bounced would be helpful,” she says.Lash also recommends that “if you have an emergency savings, transfer some funds into this account to cover any outstanding bills.”“Ask your lender if there are any provisions made for NSF fees that you may incur,” she says.4. Contact your creditorsPeople tend to think that lenders are totally inflexible when it comes to your payments. And while it’s true that most lenders aren’t pushovers, and they don’t like it when people are constantly calling in about insufficient funds, they do understand that (and this a very technical banking term) “stuff happens.” The same goes for utility companies.Lash says that you should call your lenders and “Advise them of the situation and request a pa yment date change.”“Explain that you expect to be paid by date (whatever date that the employer advised you) but you will keep them abreast of any changes.”If you have already incurred a delinquent fee, she adds, “request a courtesy removal.”5. If you need to, then lawyer upIn cases where you aren’t able to get the situation resolved immediately, then you’re probably going to need an attorney. (Also: a new job.)Lawyers can be expensive. For someone with a low-income, especially someone who’s now not even receiving that income, a traditional lawyer might be out of the price range.This is is why both Lash and Dvorkin recommends contacting your local Legal Aid office. If you qualify for free legal aid, they should be able to set you up with a lawyer.“Meanwhile, if you want to get your employer’s attention, report him to the Department of Labor in your state,” says Dvorkin. “There are laws about these things, and you can file a complaint.”Try These Savings Stra tegiesOf course, if you aren’t able to get your paycheck issue resolved quickly, then you’re still going to need money. Even if you are able to find another job, it’ll probably be a few weeks before your paid. In the meantime, how are you gonna eat?This is where a payday loan might start looking like a pretty good option. But stay away. The extremely high APRs and the short repayment terms can all too easily lead to you rolling the loan over instead of paying it off on time. That’s how the dangerous cycle of debt begins.Instead, the best way to manage this situation is to have money in your savings. This way, you can bridge the gap without having to pay any additional fees or interest.Saving money does take some extra work and disciplineâ€"especially if you’re someone with a low-income, but there are definitely ways you can make it work.Kendal Perez (@HassleFreeSaver)is the Savings Expert for (@CouponSherpa). Here are some of her tips for building your sav ingsHack your recurring expenses: “The most effective way to build your savings or emergency fund is to reduce your monthly payments and direct the difference to your savings accounts. Its a good idea to regularly review these expenses anyway to ensure youre not overpaying. Good candidates for review include cable TV and internet bills, mobile plans, auto insurance policies, and subscriptions. You can opt to swap your cable TV for a Netflix and/or Hulu subscription; decrease your data plan based on usage; increase the deductible on your auto insurance policies to drop your monthly premium, and review the subscriptions you pay for and start making cuts. You can also use a service called Trim to review and cancel unused subscriptions on your behalf.”Limit your splurges: “If youre prone to buying coffee or dining out for lunch each week, start cutting back on these treats and deposit what you save into your emergency fund. Cutting out these purchases entirely may lead to burnout, so select a day or two during the week or month to treat yourself. Limiting your splurges to Fridays and paydays only, for example, strikes a nice balance between enjoying your money now and saving for the future.”Automate your savings: “Paying yourself first means placing a priority on your financial wellness and security. This can be accomplished by setting up an automatic transfer of funds between checking and savings every time you receive a paycheck, or at any increment you choose. You can also use a tool like Digit which reviews your daily spending and makes small, incremental transfers from your checking to an online, FDIC-insured account.”Sell your stuff: “While reducing your spending and saving money is an important part of building an emergency fund, so too is adding to your income. Tis the season to spring clean and declutter, so consider selling your stuff at a garage sale, or through Craigslist or Facebook community groups, and deposit your profits into savings .”Attempt a no-spend challenge: “The more adventurous savers can try a no-spend challenge, whereby you try to purchase nothing for a certain period of time (one week, one month or even one year). The money you save by limiting your spending can go toward building your emergency fund.”Hopefully, you will never have to deal with a bounced paycheck. But if you do, follow these steps and you’ll weather the storm just fine.Have your own tips for dealing with bounced paycheck (and avoiding dangerous payday or bad credit loans)? Let us know! You can find us on Twitter at  @OppLoans.Visit OppLoans on YouTube | Facebook | Twitter | LinkedINContributorsHoward S. Dvorkin  (@HowardDvorkin)    is a  two-time author, personal finance expert, community service champion and Chairman of  (@debtcom). As  one of the most highly regarded debt and credit expert in the United States and has played an instrumental role in drafting both State and Federal Legislation.  Howard’s latest boo k “Power Up: Taking Charge of Your Financial Destiny” provides consumers with the detailed tools that they need to live debt free and regain their financial freedom. Howard has appeared as a finance expert on CBS Nightly News, ABC World News Tonight, The Early Show, Fox News, and CNN.Roslyn Lash  (@RosLash) is an Accredited Financial Counselor and the founder of Youth Smart Financial Education Services.  She specializes in youth financial education, adult coaching and works virtually with adults helping them navigate through their personal finances i.e. budgeting, debt, and credit repair.  Her advice has been featured in national publications such as USA Today, TIME, Huffington Post, NASDAQ, Los Angeles Times, and a host of other media outlets.Kendal Perez is the Savings Expert for  (@CouponSherpa), a popular source for online, in-store and grocery coupons. Her money-saving tips are often featured on Bankrate, GOBankingRates, US News World Report, Wisebread a nd more. Kendal can be found on Twitter  @HassleFreeSaver.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Should The World Be Today If There Was No Debt - 1281 Words

How would the world be today if there was no debt? Would things be better in the economy? The answer to this question is yes. Now, debt in the world has become a huge problem for the U.S. In the year of 1946, the first step into a world with debt would begin. This new creation would be the beginning of debt in the world. The invention of the credit card was a blessing, and also a curse for many. This invention would also be a huge breakthrough in how things were paid for. This one simple card would make things more convenient and quicker for Americans to purchase necessities. The credit was created only 69 years ago. There have been many changed made to these cards throughout the years. Today, many Americans are grateful for the credit†¦show more content†¦Many people today get carried away with using their credit cards. The negative effect to this is the amount of debt that can be added up to one person. Tim Chen tells us that in 2015, the average credit card debt for a household consumer is over $16,000. Many Americans today love traveling. Cards back then were only to be used locally. In the world today, it does not matter if we are out of town or in our hometown, we are able to use our cards wherever we please. When the first card was made, and for a while after, the card could only be used locally. Woosley and Gensen also mention that the holder of the card also had to have an account at Biggins bank. If he or she did not have an account with this particular bank, they did not have a Charg-It card. The purpose for this card was to be able to buy products and pay for them later. People who did not have the money at the time of purchasing the goods he or she needed, could purchase the necessities if he or she agreed to pay for them later. The merchant would record the prices and the debts would be in a certain amount of time. The Charg-It card was a great addition to the world, but it was not the only card created at the time. The Diner’s Club card was the first universal credit card in the U.S. A man by the name of Frank McNamara is the founder of the Diner’s Club card. Tbe holder of a Diner’s card was able to dine at any restaurant that participated in the Diner’s Club, and he or she could purchase a

Thursday, May 14, 2020

The Secret Of Getting Ahead Is Getting Started - 1713 Words

â€Å"The secret of getting ahead is getting started.† - Mark Twain Writing imposing stories on a boy by the name of Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn and the mighty Mississippi River, Mark Twain ventured the American soul with intelligence, optimism, and a keen eye for the truth. He became nothing less than a national treasure (AE Television). Early Life Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born on November 30, 1835, in a minute village of Florida, Missouri, he was the sixth child of Jane and John Clemens. At age 4, the Clemens family moved to near town by the name of Hannibal, which was a dynamic town of about 1,000 people. Working as a lawyer, storekeeper, judge, and land speculator, John Clemens found it hard to feed his family while dreaming of wealth (AE Television). John was considered an unsmiling fellow; according to an old myth, baby Sam never got even a small glimpse of a chuckle from him. His mother by difference, was a high-spirited, tenderhearted housewife who seemed to drift away on winter night’s while telling her family stories. She later became the head of the house in 1847 when John passed unexpectedly. The Clemens family now became almost destitute, writes Stanley 2 biographer Everett Emerson, and was forced into years of economic struggle—a fact that would shape the career of Mark Twain (AE Television). Had been living in Hannibal from age 4 to 17, Sam found the town, which was located on the Mississippi River, in a lot of ways a superb place to grow up andShow MoreRelatedWas All The President s Men By Carl Bernstein And Bob Woodward Essay1382 Words   |  6 PagesNixon at the time was going up for reelection was paranoid and afraid of losing the race to Senator George McGovern, at the time Nixon had employed a group of men to commit an arrangement of illegal activities that would put the republican party ahead of the democrats in order to gain a second term as president. Everything was all fine and dandy until the botched attempt to break into the Watergate building which housed the Democratic National Committee. Throughout these allegations and corruptnessRead MoreCompare-Contrast1087 Words   |  5 Pageswith two beauty p roducts. One will be targeted towards men, while the other will be targeted towards women. 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But the guest room is usually empty so i do sometimes go in there. chapter two secret number 1 ? Well i m getting ahead of myself, so where was I oh yay so one day as i got up in the morning i realized only grandma and grandpa were the only ones getting ready for the day. But that was ok I guess. When the day was finally over i came home to an empty house. I did know max and sara were out with friends and grandmaRead MoreThe Prize : War And Oil879 Words   |  4 PagesLike in many wars in history, â€Å"money,† â€Å"power,† and â€Å"oil† were the primary resources for combat and defense. However, out of the three, oil was the most important resource, causing many to seek its presence. Oil was not only for getting the engine started but also for getting the war done thoroughly and keeping the economy running. During World War II, oil became even more of a necessity putting countries at war. However, most importantly, oil became the decisive factor that determined the unfortunateRead MoreMy Day Of My Life1627 Words   |  7 Pagesthey walked out into the k itchen. Then they walked up to me and told me they needed to talk and then my heart suddenly started racing. My dad grabbed my hands and my mom walked to my side, and then that s when they said my mom had breast cancer. I didn’t know what to say, so I just stood there and the tears started pouring out. That s when all the questions and bad thoughts started to come to mind. The questions like what is she going to have to have, and then the thought of I don’t know what I wouldRead MoreDon t Tell Your Secrets1374 Words   |  6 Pageselse you won t be reading this letter. We ve been friends ever since we are young that s why I know everything about you. Also, you tell me your secrets. Your deepest and darkest secrets. Don t worry I won t judge you for everything you have done because I accept you for who you are and what you ve become. There is something though. I have a secret that I haven t been telling you because I don t what to be a hindrance to your happiness. You always told me how much you like Mr. Mike Miller,

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

What Foreign Aid Is Essay - 1730 Words

What Foreign Aid Is There are two words that many politicians like to shy away from, and those two words are, foreign aid. Taking a firm stand on either side of this topic is usually side stepped by decision makers. Their opinions are usually based on a case by case analysis. This extremely controversial topic involves whether or not to support the policy of foreign aid to needy or sometimes not so needy countries. What benefits does foreign aid have for the countries that receive it, and does it have any benefits for the countries who give? Some may say that instead of spending money on foreign aid, money should be spent on domestic aid. Those who argue in favor of foreign aid say that it is an investment in the future of†¦show more content†¦Some people would still be against this type of aid, and their argument would be that if money that goes to Mexico was invested in helping small business get started, America would be less dependent on other countries for their goods or services. In this case the nay-sayers were proven wrong because Mexico recently repaid the United States in full, plus interest, and a year in advance. Another form of foreign aid is a certain amount of credit is given to the receiving country in order to buy American made goods only. This form of aid not only helps the country in need, but it also pumps money into the US economy. Still some may wonder why should we care about a country such as Russia, to whom the U.S. has recently given aid to recently. The U.S. cant afford to have an ex-superpower unstable economically because of their nuclear capabilities. Because Russia is in the unstable beginnings of a democracy the U.S. wants to keep Russia on the right track. If that includes giving them aid in order to help feed their people, then that is what the U.S must do. Because reinstatement of the old regime would result in turmoil throughout the world. After communism was overthrown in the former Soviet Union the world went through big changes. There was no longer two world super powers, and all of a sudden a 40 year cold war ended. As stated the U.S. uses foreign aid as a tool to implement their political views in other countries.Show MoreRelatedWhat Role Does Foreign Aid Play? Developing Countries?1466 Words   |  6 PagesWhat Role Does Foreign Aid Play in Developing Countries? Many countries around the world receive foreign aid from the United States and other developed countries every year in large sums. This money is dispersed throughout the receiving country, it is the hope of the United States that this will help to create development economically and politically as well as promote the belief of democracy in these countries. The aid is intended to enhance infrastructure within the country so local institutionsRead MoreWhat Role Does Foreign Aid Play? Developing Countries?1768 Words   |  8 PagesWhat Role Does Foreign Aid Play in Developing Countries? Many countries around the world receive foreign aid from the United States and other developed countries every year in large sums. This money is dispersed throughout the receiving country, it is the hope of the United States that this will help to create development economically and politically as well as promote the belief of democracy in these countries. The aid is intended to enhance infrastructure within the country so local institutionsRead MoreForeign Countries Should Not Help Out A Less Developed Country?1348 Words   |  6 Pagesstudies have shown that giving money alone does not help, it could actually make the country worse off. Foreign countries should not give money to developing nations because the developing countries become too reliant on the developed countries, it does not help the developing countries, and with money, comes corruption. The better way for foreign aid to work which is to give technological aid. A quote from Maimonides, â€Å"Give a man a fish and y ou feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feedRead MoreThe United States Should Stop Sending Aid For Foreign Countries Essay1291 Words   |  6 Pageshave different views, but they both had the same opinion that the United States should stop sending aid to foreign countries. In this essay my view is that the United States should stop sending aid to foreign countries. I will defend my view against poverty by discussing Garret Hardin and, James Shikwati views on poverty, and how the United States and other countries will benefit from not sending aid. Garret Hardin mentions environmentalists use the metaphor of Earth as a spaceship. People persuadeRead MoreThe World Enters A Globalized Age Essay1151 Words   |  5 Pages As the world enters a globalized age, the interactions between nations become increasingly important. What was once a ‘all for one, one for all’ mentality, with nations acting mostly in their own best interests -barring, of course, the alliances made between nations, often military in nature acting against a common foe- has become a question of the common good. What obligation to help, if any, do countries with well developed economies and militaries have towards those nations in need? Nations thatRead MoreThe Effects of War and Peace on Foreign Aid in Somalia1360 Words   |  6 Pagesof War and Peace on Foreign Aid in Somalia Rachel Gardner Professor Marco Mena Sociology of Developing Countries Strayer University 5/4/2014 The Effects of War and Peace on Foreign Aid Foreign aid plays a major role in the sustainability of economic and social activities of developing nations. Whether in the form of development or humanitarian aid, the foreign aid is key to ensuring better living conditions and economic development for these states. These forms of aid are influential in pushingRead MoreForeign Aid Essay1342 Words   |  6 PagesForeign aid is defined as the help given by one nations government to another nation to help with social and financial advancement. Also, foreign aid is used in order to help a country to respond a disaster such as natural disaster, disease, etc. It can include providing financial help, medicines (science), food, clothes, etc. Likewise, foreign aid can be used for education (knowledge), infrastructures, equipment, and to fight poverty. I believe that foreign aid helps poor countries especiallyRead MoreThe Government Should Not Be Taxing Us For Someone Else s Needs1709 Words   |  7 Pagesto get rid of foreign aid. This paper is about how the government is taking our tax money and giving it to people in lower income countries. Us government should not be taxing us for someone else s needs because 1. 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In 1949 Truman’s Inaugural Address â€Å"we must embark on a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas† raisedRead MoreCase Study : Bang For Their Buck Essay986 Words   |  4 PagesThis leads to ineffective aid, wasted time and money, and a fundamental sense of distrust and disenchantment with the system of developmental assistance. Easterly further argues that our approach to foreign aid has been that of a â€Å"Planner† instead of a â€Å"Searcher.† Planners are full of good intentions, but they very rarely motivate others; they raise expectations, but shirk responsibility for meeting them; most importantly, they apply â€Å"global blueprints† to foreign aid that universally aim to solve

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Novel Use of Urban Big Data to Analyze Social - Organizational or Behav

Question: The objective of this work is to explore the novel use of urban Big Data to analyse social, organisational or behavioural factors affecting low carbon mobility services and their impacts. The major focus of the work will be on demonstrating the use of urban Big Data to improve planning and policy insights in mobility. For example, areas of focus could include: (1) using novel sources of Big Data, Internet-of-Things and associated data science methods to analyse social equity, spatial disparities and accessibility for disadvantaged communities, and to draw implications for planning and operations; (3) using big data for effective strategies for shared, intermodal, active and public transport, for example, regarding bicycle-sharing, car-sharing, parking-sharing, electric vehicle charging infrastructure and autonomlus mobility-on-demand systems. Answer: In the modern society, the infrastructural development is considered as an important sign of economic as well as social growth. With the help of infrastructural development majority of the people will be able to experience modernisation in their lifestyle. In the modern scenario, the development of new urbanisation is considered as one of the most important instants of the continuous growth observed in the economic domain. In the recent scenario, the development of the smart city is a new term of the proper urban development. It has also notified that smart city is a part of urban development that especially integrates multiple information as well as communication technology for securing the overall management of the city design (Simmhan, et. al., 2013). Designing the smart city with the help of urban computing is considered as one of the most important factors for its future development. With the development of the smart city by taking proper help of the urban computing will help the society to represent a technically developed city. Urban computing is considered to be an interdisciplinary study, which mainly focuses towards managing the development of the smart city through the use of upgraded technological innovation. The technological innovation and its supports are noted to be quite important for brining development within the social as well as economic structure. 1.1. Aims and Objective The study is mainly focusing towards the importance of big urban data, a new form of technological application that could enable the various authorities to bring huge profitability in their operational process. The principle aim of the study is to portray the way of using big data for bringing development within the society. To satisfy the entire research process and attaining the aim of the study, the study has design few objectives. Those objectives are as follows, To evaluate the importance of big data in the modern society To identify the way of using the big data through which social equity, smart city planning process will be evaluate To analysis the effective strategy of using big data for designing an efficient intermodal of smart city for supporting the modern transportation system 1.2. Rationale In the modern era, the advent of globalisation has been able to bring huge development in the social as well as economic development process. The urbanisation is also played the role of an instance of the overall development. Also, the rapid of urbanisation has changed the requirements of a developed economy. Therefore, the continuous development of world economy has influences the needs of technological growth that could enable various departments to implement new technology. The increasing rate of migration has relatively influenced the higher authorities to paid utmost attention towards enhancing the urbanisation programme by adopting proper strategies. In this regard, the advent of big data has been playing an important role in the development of urbanisation. Therefore, to bring urbanisation within the industry, the big data has been converted into urban data. The urban data is one kind of big data or technical approach that mainly developed for managing various data associated with cities. It could state that big data is one kind of large size of data that mainly requires the technological influences for performing in the practical field. It could also notify that the application of big data has gain huge prominences within its operational process for developing the construction of the smart city. 2. Literature Review 2.1. Introduction The previous section provided an overview of the importance of Big Data and its impact on affecting low carbon mobility services and their impacts. Hence, this section aims at providing an understanding of the impact of big data in low carbon mobility services through review of relevant literatures. 2.2. Overview of Big Data According to Batty (2013), big data can be considered as the process pertaining to knowledge generation that aims at focusing on the various approaches. Such approaches include data capture involving massive datasets wherein a majority of the population is being studied and data is used from repurposed and purpose-specific forms of data collection. Another approach to big data is data management that incorporates storing data in virtual and decentralized locations and is further associated with management of both unstructured as well as structured data sets. Data analysis is yet another significant approach to big data that is considered automated in nature, since a majority of tasks are performed with the help of computers. Correspondingly, big data is regarded as the large amount of data that requires use of architectures and new technologies towards ensuring that value is extracted from analysis process (Batty, 2013). On a similar note, Rucks and Kuzma (2012) asserted that big data encompasses a number of properties that can be categorized into variety, volume, velocity, variability, complexity and value. In this regard, it is worth mentioning that big data incorporates both semi-structured information with the help of various resources that includes social media websites, e-mails, web pages, sensor devices and documents, amongst others. In terms of volume, it must be noted that big data incorporates huge volume of data that are measured in terms of petabytes. Velocity pertaining to the data can be considered as yet another significant property underlying Big Data that is associated with determining the speed and flow of data from various sources. Use of big data enables performing the analytics pertaining to the data that is constantly in motion (Rucks and Kuzma, 2012). In addition, The Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (2014) noted that big data is further associated with variabilit y suggesting that it is able to cope with the inconsistencies in flow of data. Moreover, due consideration further needs to be placed on the fact that big data enables handling complexity since it is able to establish relationship among multiple sets of data, thereby transforming data across various sources. Finally, among several others, big data is capable of creating value based on providing users with the ability to run queries and deduct important results pertaining to the obtained filtered data. It further enables the people to gain an understanding of their business trends that enables them to change their strategies (The Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, 2014). 2.3. Impact of Big data in Low Carbon Mobility Services According to Hepler (2014), big data can play an imperative role in managing transportation in urban locations with respect to transition from vehicles associated with creating pollution to low carbon mobility services. Specifically mentioning, big data approaches are required to contend with the amount of incoming connected vehicles and traveller data. It can enable the development of a wide range of strategies associated with offering safety, environmental and mobility benefits. Additionally, use of big data can play an important role in the reduction of mechanisms underlying traditional data collection such as traffic detectors that can be replaced by the connected vehicle probes. Certainly, big data has an important role to play in enabling connected vehicle application. There are several anticipated connected vehicle applications that are capable of providing direct as well as societal benefits to the operating agencies. Specifically mentioning, the data created from connected v ehicles such as basic safety messages will be requiring huge amount of storage that can be provided through big data. Additionally, there are a number of benefits that can be highlighted with respect to the use of connected vehicle applications through big data. Such benefits are considered as providing social, organizational or behavioural benefits pertaining to big data, such as avoidance of cleanup costs and crash response owing to lower level of accidents and reduction in work-zone accidents (Hepler, 2014). Similarly, Kitchin (2013) stated that lower costs pertaining to detection of pavement condition and lower level of expenditures with respect to traveller information system and traffic mentoring can be considered as some of the other benefits associated with use of big data. Such benefits can further result in creating many effective and proactive responses towards enhancing mobility and safety in transportation. Traveller - centred transportation strategies focus towards analyzing connected traveller data in order to preparing detailed profiles of behaviours of individual travellers, utilizing the profiles towards analyzing traveller information along with implementation of the strategies through establishing direct communication with individual travellers pertaining to location specific information and making use of handheld devices to gather traveller data. Such techniques underlying use of big data play an important role in offering safety, environmental as well as mobility benef its through spreading of demand in space and time towards enhancing the use of available system capacity (Kitchin, 2013). As per the facts published by VTT (2014), in the real world scenario, big data has been used in transportation mobility sector to a limited extent. However, some of the examples include Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) in Dallas and fleet connected vehicle projects undertaken by Michigan Department of Transportation agency. Additionally, it must be noted that big data can facilitate transportation systems through focusing on a number of ways that incorporate the importance underlying resolving data, examining the utilization of third-party data broker, developments underlying data standards, lowering the volume of connected vehicles and making use of specific technologies such as federated database systems and crowdsourcing that are capable of ensuring facilitation of transportation operators towards enabling them to extract value from traveller data (VTT, 2014). Neumann (2015) further suggests that big data can further play an important role in gathering information pertaining to travel demand, traffic events, dynamic traffic conditions, environmental data and data pertaining to transportation infrastructure. Big data has an important role to play with respect to encouraging reliability, enhancing the level of efficiency as well as forecasting. Big data has already been adopted in transportation systems cross several nations. For instance, Israel launched fast lane wherein there is a toll system associated with calculating fee with regards to traffic. In order to manage aviation traffic, Brazil recently introduced system associated with making use of GPS data in order to maximize the utilization pertaining to airspace and enabling lower separation amidst aircraft routes. In Europe, providers of railway infrastructure make use of industrialized approach that aims at distributing track capacity in various slots associated with differing speed profiles with the help of big data (Neumann, 2015). 2.5. Use of Big Data to analyse social equity, spatial disparities and accessibility for disadvantaged communities, and implications for planning and operations With respect to transportation systems, UCL (2016) noted that big data offers people specifically belonging to the disadvantaged communities with several accessibility benefits towards fostering social equity. Herein, there is a need to new technologies along with shifts in the open data are playing an important role in the utilization of big data towards evaluating infrastructure and services along with gaining a better understanding of the transportation needs of the disadvantaged communities. At present, big data has been largely applied in informing the decision of transport users, planning pertaining to public transport systems, asset maintenance and management of road traffic (UCL, 2016). According to the U.S. Department of Transportation (2014), technological developments have played an important role in the use of big data in mobility services that include the use of smart travel cards, location tracking through GPS, sensor equipment along with mobile networks. Social media further provides high amount of readily available information pertaining to people behaviour and their activities that is required for planning and operations. Furthermore, there is a need to note that big data enables maintenance of assets such as rail and road networks through recognizing problems and reducing costs. For instance, use of GPS tracking and mobile sensors are capable of reducing costs as well provide higher benefits. Big data further plays an impeccable role in management of road traffic with the help of using CCTV, traffic sensors and traffic cameras towards offering real-time information of traffic conditions. Use of big data further enables gaining real-time traffic data throug h media channels. Commendably, big data is used in logistics and freight as part of enhancing performance and delivery towards increasing mileage and lowering carbon emissions (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2014). From a similar perspective, Katal, Wazid and Goudar (2013) state that big data further enables planning and operations since an assessment of the public transport data can play an important role in assessing the journey patterns of people belonging to disadvantaged communities. This can be analyzed with the help of gathering information pertaining to locations that are travelled by the users, the preferred mode of transportation, reliability of the journey and frequency of travel. Such insights can enable planning low mobility services. An assessment of the public transport data further offers an understanding of the manner in which people belonging to disadvantaged communities make use of the transportation system, thereby offering a better understanding of their preferences. Use of data visualisation as part of big data can enable mapping passengers travel routes, apart from informing about operational and planning decisions pertaining to services and explaining transport networks to passengers in a more visual manner (Katal, Wazid and Goudar, 2013). 3. Research Methodology 3.1. Research Design The study is mainly paid attention towards evaluating the important of big urban data in managing the various operational aspects that help the company in developing the new projects like the smart city. The study will also highlight how the big data or urban computing is helpful in supporting the modern urbanisation progress in a rapid manner. The study with the help of methodology will evaluate the usage process of urban computing and big data for managing the entire process of establishing the smart city. For presenting a proper justification or rationale with satisfying the actual objectives of the study in a systematic way, the study has conducted a literature review session. By conducting the entire research process in a systematic manner with the association of proper methodology, the study mainly represents a significant conclusion. It will also notify that to conduct a literature review session has also proved to provide the study with empirical evidence. 3.2. Research Design The research design is mainly recognised as a blue print of the study that mainly enables the various research processes to represents in a proper manner. In the process of research methodology, the research design has most of the time played the role of a frame work that always influences the entire study to represent in a professional manner. Basically, in this particular research process, the design needs to be perfect for representing the entire plan in an effective manner. In a simple word, this particular research proposal is mainly focused towards identifying the usefulness of big data in developing the new trend in the urbanisation. Apart from this, actual importance of this particular research is to identify the actual techniques of managing the big data and utilise it in a proper manner for enhancing the development process. Therefore, to identify the actual objectives of the research study, the study has selected the descriptive research design ensuring an effective as wel l as successful completion of the above-mentioned process. The adoption descriptive research design has been proved to be helpful for this particular research process and encourages for identifying the actual results of the selected topic. Besides, the descriptive research design has also noted to be helpful in identifying the human perception regarding the above-mentioned subject matter (Creswell, 2013). 3.3. Research Approach The research approach is recognised as an important part of the research methodology that primarily responsible for managing the entire research process. With the help of proper research approach, the entire methodology is mainly helpful in managing the actual objective of the study. Therefore, it could be stated that the adoption of appropriate research approach is highly significant for managing the entire research process and helps to attain success significantly. Basically, in the research methodology section, the research approach is considered as a plan (Ng, et. al., 2004). In this particular research study, the qualitative research approach has been selected for successfully completing the entire project. The qualitative research approach is quite different from quantitative research approach. It is one type of exploratory research that helps to gain understanding regarding human opinion as well as motivation. This is a process that mainly based on the secondary collection data and represents it in the narrative format. Also, the main objective of using this type of research approach is to evaluate the actual reason of the research objective along with human opinion (Creswell, 2013). In this particular research study, the qualitative research approach has been selected for evaluating its actual objective. The adoption of qualitative research approach it noted to be suitable for evaluating and concluding the actual conclusion of the study. In this research process, the primary topic is associated with the use of big data and its utilisation for developing the urbanisation. With the help of qualitative research approach, the actual importance of big data and urban computing system has been identified in a significant manner. The qualitative research approach is efficient in representing the data in a story telling process. The story telling process is one type of narrative approach that helps the study to highlights its positive impact on its objective. During the process of literature review session, the qualitative research approach paid main attention towards evaluating the importance and usefulness of the urban big data concept. Furthermore, it also evaluates how the big data can make a positive impact on the construction of smart city (Bryman, 2015). 3.4. Data Collections Method The data collection method is considered as one of the most important aspects that could enable the research process to be successful in a systematic manner. In this particular research study, the data collection process has been performed in a systematic manner. The study is adopting the qualitative research approach with the help of secondary research data. The adoption of secondary data has been proved to be helpful in drawing an effective conclusion. To conduct the literature review session in a successful manner, the secondary sources have been selected. The secondary data has been gathered by accessing the academic journals as well as books will be used for providing proper justification to the abovementioned question (Bernard, 2011). 3.5. Ethical Considerations Ethical consideration is an integral part of the research process. Recently, in every research process, it is mandatory to maintain the ethical considerations as an inseparable part of the mythology research system. In this particular research process, the ethical consideration has been maintained throughout the study. To develop a successful research, the research proposal should maintain an ethical consideration that mainly depicted about its future authenticity of the research. While conducting the interview session, the confidentiality reliability as well as the validity of the data has been maintained (Schlesinger Heskett, 1994). The reliability, as well as validity of the study both, is important for managing the future authentication of this particular research process. The data has been collected from the credible sources for evaluating the empirical evidence systematic manner. It is important for this research process to maintain credibility by collecting data from authentic sources. Therefore, the secondary data that has been collected for this particular research has not been manipulated while conducting the literature review (Creswell, 2013). 4. Results Big data is one kind of technological approach that has gain immense prominences within the field of modern business environment. It has also notified that advent of data collection process is noted to be quite important for performing various operational performances within that particular organisation. Basically, big data is also defined as large sets of data that mainly required the assistances of technological supports for performing in a successful manner. Most of the time the big data is also required the support of architectural strategies for evaluating the actual results in the practical life. Basically, it has been used for capturing as well as analysing the large sets of data for enhancing new technical approaches. 4.1. Usage of Big Data in Development Process In the modern scenario, big data and big data related application has been played an important role for the development of new infrastructure within the society. As per the technical approach the big data has become one of the new strategic assets that enhance the new way of network as well as communication. With helps of advent of big data there are various benefits has been experiences by various users. With the help of this particular application corporate data base, cell phone GPS signals as well as climate sensor has been enjoying by various people. The big data has also influences the social network communication by making a network for various users. In this particular case, data collected from the vast as well as varied sources are been collected and represented in a significant manner. Now a days the government as well as their governments have planned to paid utmost attention towards developing the smart city. The development of smart city will also enhance the urbanisation concept by adopting the big data and its efficiency. The adoption of big data is not only supported the transportation system but it also created an effective network system for managing the large size of data through the technological supports. The USA is considered to be the first country, which has adopted the concept of smart city with help of big data. In USA the adoption of big data has been largely applied for enhancing their urbanisation system. It mainly contributes in the transport users for planning the public transport systems, asset maintenance such as allocation of house and government land as well as management of road traffic. The big data application has been adopted by various business institutions for ensuring an exponential growth in business process. It helps the data volumes to get managed easily as well as stored with effective manner. Big data has process the data efficiently as well as provide the accurate information to its various users. It has the proper ability to analyze the entire process in a proper manner for highlighting the positive approach in the practice result. Initially, the big data has been used as an analytical tool for experimenting several new things. Currently, it not only performing as an analytical tool but it also provides various suggestions to its users regarding the future implications of the process. By adopting the big data concept various companies are been able to attaining real results for enhancing their operational process. 4.2. The Importance of Big Data for the Transportation Recently, the increasing rate of congestion in the various transportation mode has influences the entire system to adopt new technological approach for reducing various complexities. Apart from this bog data has also showed various beneficial moves for the company while performing their operational process. The adoption of big data is quite beneficial as well as cost effective for the various companies. As it is a cloud based analytical approach, therefore it mainly represents a cost advantages for its users. Apart from this, big data is also useful for managing the entire data management process efficiently for performing a better operational process. There are large size organisations, which recently seeking for adopting big data concept for managing the faster as well as better decision making process. In the recent scenario, the bog data has been playing an important role for enhancing the logistics department management criteria efficiently. Basically, it could be stated that with the proper application of big data concept majority of the company will be able to manage their operational performances efficiently. In order to sustain within high competitive market structure, the development of the new operational process is considered to be quite efficient. There are various companies which are recently gained huge success in their operational process after adopting the big data concept. The urban big data in Amazon, Face book, Google as well as various social media has influences the better management of the capital as well as resource management. 4.3. Big data for developing Smart City Big data has also played an important performance in the modern transportation services that could make an effective connection between various places. In the domain of urbanisation, the big data has also played the role of architectural as well as technological supports for development a smart city efficiently. Therefore, to develop the concept of smart city, the adoption of big data has played an important role. In developing a smart city the transportation procedures should be effective. Therefore, the application of big data for measuring the distance of various locations for evaluating the movement of vehicles from one place to another is important. The identification of this particular information associated with transportation is signogfiucnat for the environmental approach as it provides proper information regarding pollution (Neirotti, et. al., 2014). By indentifying those issues the new strategies regarding its proper management is important. It also enhances the low carbon mobility services among various locations within the smart city urbanisation process. Recently, technological developments have played an important role in developing the proper urbanisation process through the application of big data. In transportation system the low carbon mobility services has been adoption in the logistics process, which includes the use of smart travel cards. The implication of location tracking system through GPS sensor is considered to be another major instance of the big data application. 5. Discussion Big data refers to the huge amount of data that is required to analyse and store the information towards ensuring that the processes are carried out in the most appropriate manner. Specifically mentioning, big data is associated with offering a number of benefits in the transportation and mobile low carbon utility services. Herein, there is a need to note that use of big data enables facilitating resource-efficient transport concerned with respecting the environment, better door-to-door mobility, lower amount of unforeseen delays, lower congestion, reliable as well as safer multi-modal mobility, exchange of personal information in a secured manner, creating global leaderships in transport industry along with social, economic and behavioural developments pertaining to the individuals belonging to disadvantaged communities (W3C, 2015). Use of big data is considered as providing benefits to both the public as well as private sectors (Tufte Platman, 2015). Big data further enables creat ion of plot towards determination of speed and volume pertaining to freeway traffic sensors, as can be noted from the diagram below: In case of public sectors, big data fosters transportation and low carbon mobility services through enabling traffic control, congestion management, logistics and route planning. Correspondingly, big data is used by private sector such as in the case of travel industry, gaining competitive advantages, logistics and route planning. It further enables the individuals to plan their routes and travel (Marr, 2015). Big data has an important role to play in determining the manner in which smart cities are able to accomplish their transportation targets, towards providing an understanding of the manner in which smart cities make use of ICT towards facilitating transportation networks (Oracle, 2015). Herein, there is a need to note that use of big data enables enhancing multi-source traffic, apart from availability and processing of travel data along with the use of techniques that are directed towards increasing travel data fusion and multi-source traffic, such as in the case of enhanced mo bility management. It further provides certain socio-economic benefits along with leveraging on innovation (IMSC, 2016). In this regard, the diagram below provides an understanding of the data gathering with the help of big data for moving objects, traffic sensor data, road network data and points-of-interest data. Big data further plays an important role in traffic management, since it offers new insights pertaining to real time traffic data and traffic patterns. Hence, big data is capable of analysing social equity, spatial disparities and accessibility with respect to disadvantaged communities with the help of analyzing the journey patterns of individuals, providing information to the transport agencies regarding the manner in which such individuals make use of the public transportation systems. In addition to asset maintenance, big data is further considered beneficial for evaluating performance of public transport (Delgado, 2014). For instance, Excess Waiting Time (EWT) is used as the KPIs in big data to assess the performance of transport companies. Additionally, such techniques are capable of providing information regarding causes pertaining to dwell time at bottlenecks, key bottlenecks, worst performing routes along with improvement margins in time table. Specifically mentioning, social media within big data plays a vital role in transportation since it is associated with offering inbound, outbound and continuous information. Big data enables Real-time Traffic Management that offers an understanding of the warnings, predictions underlying traffic flow and lane handling, amongst others (Tufte Platman, 2015). The use of big data in measurement of travel speed performance can be further understood from the diagram depicted below: The positive implications of big data and the Internet of Things (IoT) have further played a commendable role in development of Transport for London (TfL). Specifically mentioning, use of big data has enabled focusing on bicycle-sharing, car-sharing, parking-sharing, electric vehicle charging infrastructure and autonomous mobility-on-demand systems. To be specific, data is gathered with the help of ticketing systems, focus groups, traffic signals and social media. The reasons behind gathering huge amount of data can be attributed with offering information to customers and development of planning services (Nemschoff, 2014). Transport for London (TfL) has made use of Oyster prepaid travel cards, wherein, passengers can travel in transportation systems through converting real money to Transport for London money that enable gaining access to trains and buses. This further enables gathering huge data for precise journeys towards producing journey maps that reveals information pertaining t o where and when people travel. Similarly, the London City Dashboard makes use of big data towards providing information on tube line status, air pollution, weather and stocks, amongst others (Kitchin, 2014). The diagram depicted below provides an overview of the dashboard. In addition, big data enables transportation experts to develop an understanding of selection of routes by individuals and preference of mode of transportation. One such example is the tram system of Melbourne in Australia that makes use of big data to reconfigure routes towards overcoming challenges such as natural disaster (Kanniyappan McQueen, 2014). IoT and big data have together played an important role in fostering public transportation through use of sensors in enhancing efficiency and evaluating problems. Smart Santander RA augmented reality app is one of the vital applications that is based on use of big data towards providing travellers with information regarding the city, travel routes and bus timings (Kitchin, 2014). The diagram below provides an overview of the application. Big data has further been largely used in the transportation system in Sau Paulo, Brazil towards managing bus fleet. Use of big data has enabled gathering real-time information on number of people utilizing bus services, route timings and driver information (Rijmenam, 2016). This enables the transportation systems to enhance their operations, determining efficient routes and meeting with vehicle demands. Big data has further enabled ensuring the establishment of an efficient transportation system that is considered vital for the development of economy through enhancing the level of operational efficiency, lowering costs of fuel, enhancing customer experiences and providing service offerings (olak, Alexander, Alvim, Mehndiratta Gonzlez, 2015). Notably, smaller disadvantaged communities that had no access to data in the past are increasingly focusing on the implementation of sensors and other mechanisms of data collection. Additionally, big data provides the benefit of gaining a bette r understanding of the temporal, daily as well as seasonal variations pertaining to travel behaviour that can enable development of customized strategies for managing transportation. Big data further enables designing traffic speed maps, based on the data collected through sensors (Tufte Platman, 2015). The diagram below provides an overview of the data pertaining to traffic speed maps. Transportation Decision-Making (TransDec) is an important real-world system that enables gathering information pertaining to real-time traffic sensor data, along with conducting an assessment of the visualization pertaining to dynamic transportation systems. Developments underlying wireless technologies and sensors have resulted in development of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) that facilitate managing transportation systems, effective monitoring and decision-making (IMSC, 2016). In this regard, the diagram below provides an understanding of the data analysis in transportation systems using big data. An assessment of the diagram depicted above suggests that the TransDec encompasses three-tier architecture including presentation, query-interface and data tier towards creation of customized spatiotemporal query based on an interactive mapping interface. This enables effective management of complex and dynamic transportation data and reduces queries pertaining to transportation networks (IMSC, 2016). 6. Conclusion Recommendations Big data has a considerable level of impact on the social, organisational or behavioural factors affecting low carbon mobility services. In this regard, the study provided an understanding of the manner in which big data can be used along with Internet-of-Things and associated data science methods to analyse social equity, spatial disparities and accessibility for disadvantaged communities. Additionally, the study further elaborated on the use of big data in drawing implications for planning and operations. Correspondingly, the study highlighted several facts suggesting that big data has an important role to play in determining effective strategies for shared, intermodal, active and public transport such as bicycle-sharing, car-sharing, parking-sharing, electric vehicle charging infrastructure and autonomous mobility-on-demand systems. An assessment of the reviews obtained from literatures suggest that big data ion transportation systems enables the development of a wide range of str ategies associated with offering safety, environmental and mobility benefits. In addition, big data enables the reduction of mechanisms underlying traditional data collection, apart from enabling connected vehicle application. The study further provided an understanding of the fact that big data plays an important role in the avoidance of clean-up costs and crash response. On a similar note, lower level of expenditures on traveller information system and traffic mentoring, mobility and safety in transportation were some of the other advantages underlying big data that were highlighted during the study. Witgh respect to examples, it must be noted that Integrated Corridor Management (ICM) in Dallas and fleet connected vehicle projects undertaken by Michigan Department of Transportation agency are some of the areas wherein big data has been effectively used. The study highlighted that big data can foster shared, intermodal and public transportation through resolving data, developments underlying data standards, lowering the volume of connected vehicles, examining the utilization of third-party data broker and making use of specific technologies like federated database systems and crowdsourcing. The study furt her suggested that big data plays an important role in determining travel demand, traffic events, dynamic traffic conditions, environmental data and data associated with transportation infrastructure. In addition, the study further provided an understanding of various examples associated with highlighting the use of big data in managing transportation system that have been adopted by several nations. To be specific, some of the examples include launch of fast lane wherein there is a toll system associated with calculating fee with regards to traffic in Israel. The study further noted the example of Brazil that recently introduced system associated with making use of GPS data in order to manage aviation traffic, maximize the utilization pertaining to airspace and enabling lower separation amidst aircraft routes. Furthermore, examples pertaining to providers of railway infrastructure in Europe were further noted that was associated with making use of industrialized approach that aims at distributing track capacity in various slots associated with differing speed profiles with the help of big data. The study further outlined that big data is applied in asset maintenance, planning und erlying public transport systems informing decisions pertaining to transport users and management of road traffic. Use of sensors, GPS services, CCTV, traffic sensors and traffic cameras offer real-time information of traffic conditions, which can be considered as another significant benefit underlying big data in transportation systems. The study noted that big data enables planning and operations based on an assessment of the public transport data that can play an important role in analyzing the journey patterns of people belonging to disadvantaged communities. For instance, due emphasis is laid on gathering information relating to locations travelled by the users, reliability of the journey, preferred mode of transportation and frequency of travel, amongst others. Moreover, findings obtained from the study further suggested that use of big data enables gaining several benefits such as lower congestion, lower amount of unforeseen delays, better door-to-door mobility, exchange of personal information in a secured manner, creating global leaderships in transport industry, reliable as well as safer multi-modal mobility, along with social, economic and behavioural developments pertaining to the individuals belonging to disadvantaged communities. Based on the facts obtained from the study, a number of recommendations can be made. One such recommendation can be made with respect to use of both qualitative as well as quantitative data analysis techniques in future researches conducted on a similar topic. Moreover, studies can be conducted through inclusion of primary sources of data collection that would encompass gathering information from travellers, disadvantaged communities or employees associated with transportation systems. Moreover, recommendations can be made with regards to development and increase in the use of big data towards managing transportation systems, which can include incorporating stakeholders such as detection algorithm developers, transportation modellers, transportation operations managers, transportation planners, asset managers, transport agency mapping stakeholders along with experts. In addition, identification and association of various programs based on big data use such as Connected Vehicle Progra m, environmental and road weather programs along with the use of Dynamic Mobility Applications can further enable enhancing the application of big data towards fostering low carbon mobility services in transportation systems. References Batty, M., 2013. 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